13 a project made by amalie francis bodil pedersen isabel doyer erik tveit fall 2005

13

A project made by
Amalie Francis
Bodil Pedersen
Isabel Doyer
Erik Tveit


Fall 2005
Index
Front page p.1
Index p.2
„What is a wave“ by Bodil Pedersen p.3
“Surfing” by Bodil Pedersen p.4
“Diving as a watersport” by Erik Tveit p.6
“Sailing as a watersport” by Amalie Francis p.9
Pollution and watersports” By Isabel Doyer p.10

By Bodil Pedersen
If you see a wave rolling in on the beach after a storm, or if you are
out on the ocean on a windy day, you’ll understand that there is
enormous power in the waves.
But where do these forces come from? What creates the waves?
Everything from earthquakes to ship wakes creates waves; however, the
most common cause is wind. When the wind passes over the waters
surface, friction forces it to ripple. The strength of the wind, the
distance the wind blows (fetch) and the length of the gust (duration)
determine how big the ripples will become
If the wind continues to blow, the waves will grow. Wave energy is a
purified form of sun energy.
The energy in the waves is dependent on the height of the wave (the
distance between the trough of the wave and the crest of the wave) and
the length of the wave (the distance between each crest) (How a wave
is “build up” is better explained further down)
The taller and longer the waves are, the more energy there’s in them.
In addition you will find most energy in the waves in deep water. In
deep water, a wave is a forward motion of energy, not water. When the
waves approach land, the energy in the waves decreases considerably.
There’s most energy in tall and long waves, for example in the waves
during and after a storm.
How is a wave divided?
W aves are divided into several parts. The crest is the highest
point on a wave, while the trough, or the valley between two waves, is
the lowest point.
Wavelength is the horizontal distance, either between the crests or
troughs of two consecutive waves.
Wave height is a vertical distance between a wave's crest and the next
trough.

By Bodil Pedersen
What is it, how is it done, and when did it all start?
S urfing is in the encyclopedia defined as an activity or a
sport in which individuals are propelled across water by the force of
waves, while standing on boards made of either “fiberglass”, foam or
wood.
The surfer begins at the point where the wave begins to form. Then,
facing shore, he/she paddles toward the beach with an oncoming wave.
When the wave catches the board, the surfer stands up and glides along
the crest of the wave.(look “what is a wave”).
Surfing was originally developed by Hawaiian islanders before the 15th
century. It took a long time before it was “spotted” by the rest of
world, in fact, in 1821 missionaries banned the activity – they
thought it was immoral.
But in the early 20th century, it was spread to the mainland of USA
and Australia.
The sport exploded in popularity in the 1950s and 1960s, when the
boards became cheaper and more manoeuvrable. The boards were now made
of fiberglass or foam, which made riding and different stunts much
easier.
Wave Priority - Your Wave My Wave?
----------------------------------
If you are surfing on a popular spot, there might be a lot of other
surfers who might be after the same wave as you. To prevent surfers to
collide, there is one simple rule all surfers have to follow – the
surfer closest to the breaking of the wave has the priority.

In this case, it is surfer D who has the priority. He is closest to
the breaking of the wave. If surfer D does not get the wave then its
up to surfer C and so on.
Surfing Do's And Dont's
*
Alcohol. Surfing under the influence is not a good idea.
*
Be Aware. Be aware of other surfers and water users, of the surf
conditions, and of where you are surfing.
*
Comfort Zone. You should surf in waves that you are comfortable
in, don't get in over your head.
*
Fitness. Make sure you are physically fit when surfing. You need
to be able to swim back to shore if you lose your board at the end
of an exhausting session .
*
Food. As with swimming, do not go surfing for at least 45 min
after a meal.
*
Fun. Surfing is all about having fun, keep it in mind when you are
out in the waves.
*
Hold or Throw. Know when to hold onto your surfboard and when to
get rid of it.
*
Patrolled Beaches. If you are surfing on a patrolled beach make
sure that you keep within the designated surfing are.
*
Priority. Always make sure that you are not taking anyone else's
wave. Practice. If you want to improve then you need to be in the
water surfing as regularly as possible. No-one got any better at
anything by staying home and watching TV.
*
Respect. Respect the locals if you are visiting a beach. Remember
that you are a guest and that waves should be shared.
*
Rips. If you are caught in a rip remember that it's called R.I.P.
for a reason and you will probably not make it back to dry land
ever again. Although hopefully you already know that a rip is a
strong current that (normally) goes straight out to sea and if
caught in one that you should not panic and paddle across the rip
(not against it) until you have escaped.
*
Sun Block. Always wear a good waterproof sunblock.
*
Surf Buddy. Always surf with at least one other person.
*
Surf Conditions. Make sure that the surf is safe before you go in.
If you are going surfing at a spot you are unfamiliar with it is a
good idea to get some advice from a local.
*
Warm-up. Always have a quick warm-up and stretch before entering
the surf. This will reduce the risk of muscle injury or cramp
whilst you are surfing. It also gives you time to check for any
rips or where the best spot to catch waves is.
Diving as a watersport
By Erik Tveit
Diving, as a water sport is, at least what I think it is, is when you
swim underwater with a tank of oxygen on your back. This is only a
small part of what diving really is. There are a lot of different
types of diving. Amongst them are snorkelling, free diving, scuba
diving and snuba diving.
The Different Types of Diving
-----------------------------
Snorkelling is diving with a limited amount of equipment. Snorkellers
only use a diving mask and a short rubber tube, called a snorkel.
Snorkelling is when a person swims close to the surface observing the
ocean and the habitats within. The snorkeller constantly breathe
through the snorkel and because of that, he doesn’t need to have his
head above water when he breathe, since he receives all the oxygen he
needs through the snorkel.
F ree diving is the most extreme form of diving today. There
are three ways of competing in free diving. The first way is called
Static Apnea, which means holding your breath for as long as possible.
This is often attempted in pools or such. The second way is called
Static Apnea and in this part the meaning is to swim as far as
possible under water, without surfacing. In this category there are
two sub categories, which is with or without fins. The third way is
depth diving. This is when the diver swims as far as possible
downwards. There are several sub categories in depth diving. They can
do it with or without fins, with or without weights, that make them
sink faster, and with or without buoyancy control devices. The world
record of No limits-diving is 209 metres- No Limits is a sub category
to depth diving and contains both weights and buoyancy control
devices.
S cuba is short for: Self-Contained Underwater Breathing
Apparatus. This is actually the equipment the divers uses during a
dive. In short, scuba diving is when a diver carries his own equipment
on his back during diving. Among the equipment are an oxygen tank, a
diving mask/helmet and a diving suit. Scuba divers often swim deeper
than free divers and snorkellers, because they have oxygen with them
and because of that, do not rely on returning to the surface to
breathe.
S nuba diving is a new form for diving that is a combination of
scuba diving and snorkelling. The difference is that the diver hasn’t
got the oxygen tank on his back, but it floats on the surface,
strapped to a raft. This is a very relaxed form for diving and anyone
can do it, since it doesn’t require any special diving-license such as
regular diving. The depth limit is 6 metres, since it’s a depth where
decompression sickness doesn’t turn into a problem.
Diving Hazards
--------------
D iving involves many dangerous situations, but almost every
single one can be avoided if handled correctly. Decompression sickness
is one of the most common dangers. This is a result of descending to
quickly, which means that your body tissue doesn’t get rid of the
nitrogen or helium your body has absorbed in depth. The only way to
avoid this is to descend slowly after a dive. Another hazard is
pulmonary, commonly known as “burst lung”. This happens if a diver
holds his breath while descending. The oxygen in the lungs while then
expand as a result of the decreasing pressure and then the lungs
explode. This mostly results in death. Hypothermia is another risk
divers take. This happens when the diver swims in cold water for a
long period and because of that, loses too much the body heat. Last,
but not least is drowning. This is very common not only amongst
divers, but other people as well. When there is no oxygen to breath,
the diver inhales water and fills the persons lungs with water.
Drowning mostly lead to death, as it’s definition is: Dying due to not
being able to inhale anything but water. In spite of this, many
drowned persons can be saved if they get artificial respiration or
CPR, within a short amount of time.
Pollution
---------
N one of the sports above oppose a direct threat upon the
environment, as other water sports do. The only “pollution” the divers
leave behind must be eventual garbage they take with them, which is
quite unlikely. If the divers where to unbalance the habitats, in any
way, it must be by cutting off corals and selling them to tourists.
This will, over a long period of time, result in the destruction of
the coral reefs. That will result in the extinction of many fish and
other sea creatures. Many places today rely on tourism, and wouldn’t
survive without. Because of this, many people take advantage of the
situation, and sell corals. Since many people think that this is an
excellent souvenir, the destruction of the coral reefs continues. The
people who make a living out of this are only a small part of the
water sport community. In general, people who participate in water
sports are against water pollution. Many scuba divers lose their
“territories” as a result of pollution. If the water gets too
polluted, the government closes the beach and no activities are
permitted. Because of this, many of the people involved in these
activities takes a political stand against it and leads demonstrations
against polluting factories, power plant etc.
Diving is very much depending on the oceans condition. This is because
the divers study fish, reefs etc. Pollution in the water will kill
fish and destroy half the meaning of diving and, as mentioned above,
the government will close the beaches and areas where divers dive if
they get too polluted. This will result in lesser tourism in the
countries that base their tourism on scuba diving and snorkelling.
Conclusion
----------
Diving is a great hobby, but also a profession for some. Diving is
also fun and exciting for those who want to try it. Divers exploit the
resource called water in a great way. They are not polluting the
water, but they still get to study the great wonders of water, from
below the surface. Divers are very important in a scientific way
because the can discover parts of the oceans that never has been
discovered before.
S
By Amalie Francis
ailing as a watersport
Sailing is the art of navigating a sailboat for recreational or
competitive p urposes.
From the first time you step on a boat until the last time you step
off, sailing is a learning a experience. Even the most experienced
sailors learn something new whenever they encounter an unfamiliar
boat, weather or water.
All you need is a boat and some wind to travel the world. Without the
need to use presious fossil fuels or to create lung burning pollution,
sailing provides a means of transportation used for centuries.
Sailing was first originated I Holland in the 17th. Century, and was
later spread to different parts of the world. Now a days sailing is
most known in America. The oldest continuously existing club in the
United States is the New York Yacht Club. In 1851 members of the NYYC
raced the schooner America against British competitors around
England's Isle of Wight. Of course they won, and donated their trophy
to the NYYC. It became known as the America's Cup, giving its name to
the oldest and most prestigious event in international sailboat r
acing.
Racing Classes
--------------
There is no single “yacht type” of boat, rather many types that
include sloops, yawls, catamarans, and ketches. The hundreds of
different racing classes fall into three broad groups:
*one-design classes where very similar boats compete;
*handicap classes where dissimilar boats race, some with an
advantageous time allowance
*and rating classes where a variety of formulas take into account boat
length, sail size, type of rig, and other factors.
Sailboats originally had wooden hulls with sails made of sailcloth, a
canvas commonly called duck. Today, fiberglass hulls and synthetic
fabrics predominate, and rigid wing sails, which looks a lot like
aircraft wings. They are used in place of a fabric sail when a high
speed is desired.

Pollution
If you are a sailor in the United States, you should always be careful
concerning drinking and swimming in the water in some places. In the
United States, beaches along both coasts, riverbanks, and lake shores
have been ruined for bathers by industrial wastes, municipal sewage,
and medical waste.
Especially one disease all sailor should be aware of is the Weil
Disease. Weils Disease is an infection caused by the bacterium
Leptospira interrogans. There are over 200 hundred types or strains of
this bacterium that are capable of causing human disease. It is mainly
associated with people who have close contact with water courses as
part of their job or hobby. The bacterium is carried in the urine of
rats and other rodents. The very nature of these creatures is to
continuously urinate over the area they travel. Due to this and
considering that rats are commonly found in aquatic environments, the
following areas and activities may carry a risk of transmission. The
bacterium which is present in water and moist vegetation/soil etc.
gains access to the body by entering via scratches on the skin, or
inhalation of contaminated water droplets. Occasionally this disease
has been caught through contaminated foods. It is found in people who
do activities such as recreational bathing aquadromes, rivers ,rowing,
sailing, campers, water skiing, sportsmen/women.
As long as you are careful and follow all the rules, sailing could be
an really exciting hobby or a profession for you. Its easy to learn
and With a little bit of training and practice almost anyone can learn
how to properly rig a boat, pull halyards and trim sheets. Its an
experience worth to try!

By Isabel Doyer


* Water-sports
* Offshore racing
* Oil pollution
* Tin pollution
I was to find out how watersports effects the envirement,
but actually I found no negative effects made by watersport.
But what we all know is that boats cause pollution in the water!
They cause tin-pollution and oil-pollution…
M otor-sport on water like offshore-racing (ORC) and
powerboat-racing (APBA) and other water-sports that includes boats
cause pollution.
F. eg.:
*
Fishing
*
Waterskiing
*
Wakeboard
*
Scubadiving
Powerboat-racing:
Founded by: Mr. Carbonell
M r. Carbonell has been an innovator in this sport. He
introduced the “inshore” racing format in 1989. Whereas boats used to
race offshore far from the public’s eyes, his inshore format allowed
the audience access within 60 feet of the race course. This mad the
sport popular, both for the fans and for the sponsors, and changed the
entire marketing and visibility of offshore powerboat racing.
Powerboat is racing at a speed of ca.200-300km/h.
The team consists of 2 persons in a boat;
*
a driver
*
a throttleman
If you're in good shape, maybe you can stand getting beat up at 67 mph
for 60 seconds or so before you get tired and back oft. In racing, you
get beat up for an hour and you don't back oft. In racing, the driver
and throttle man can get bounced so hard that they crack their helmets
together and nearly lose consciousness.
They now have more national fans than ever, and the number of fans is
still growing. Super Boat International has assured itself an exciting
future.


When it comes to mixing oil and water, oceans suffer from far more
than an occasional devastating spill. Disasters make headlines, but
hundreds of millions of gallons of oil quietly end up in the seas
every year, mostly from non-accidental s ources!

Down the drain: This is how many million gallons of oil leaking out in
the ocean by boats or other “harmless” transports every year.
Now this must cause some damage!
Large spills--even though a relatively minor source of ocean oil
pollution--can be devastating. The same amount of oil can do more
damage in some areas than others. Coral reefs and mangroves are more
sensitive to oil than sandy beaches or sea-grass beds; intertidal
zones are the most sensitive. Crude oil is most likely to cause
problems

Tributyl tin has been used extensively in marine paint formulations to
prevent barnacles and slime to stick on boat hulls. They use tributyl
in paint because its biocidal properties kills barnacles (
=andeskjell) and other organisms that would otherwise remain on the
boat. However, it was discovered that Tributyl tin not only kills
organisms in direct contact with the boat but is also harmful to other
organisms as it seeps out of the paint.
Tributyl tin was banned by many countries around 1980, but it’s still
widely used on large ocean-going boats, so amounts of tributyl tin are
found in almost every harbour.
Symptoms of tin:
Humans:
Animals:
Headaches
eye irritation
psycho-neurological disturbance
sore throat
coughing
abdominal pain
vomiting
urine retention
paresis
focal anesthesia
skin burns
pruritis
Hemolysis
Hepatic necrosis (OSHA).

W hile it takes a relatively large amount of Tributyl tin to
cause such symptoms in humans, it only takes trace amounts as small as
50 ng of Tributyl tin to cause problems for Mollusks and other
bi-valves. (f. e.g. oysters)
The Mollusks, they function as filters to clean the water, so when the
mollusks filter out the tributyl ,it builds up inside them. The
tributyl tin causes many problems for the mollusks, it weakens and
deforms their shells and gives them reproductive difficulty.
Before Tributyl tin was banned, The oyster populations of many
harbours were completely wiped out.
The standard maximum allowable concentration of Tributyl tin is 2 ng
per liter. It’s not uncommon for a shipyard that still has traffic
with painted hulls to have concentrations as high as 100 ng per liter
or 50 times the legal limit
There is still no standard method for determining how much tributyl
tin contamination is present because of the extremely small amounts.
Marine paint is not the only source that causes butyl tins to get into
the water. It is also used as a catalyst in the plastics industry and
as an algaecide in cooling circuits for boilers.
Because of the ban of tributyl tin, other products have been developed
for use on boar hulls. For instance Teqmar Antifoul, contains no
tributyl tin or arsenic, but still serves as an antifoulant to keep
barnacles and slime off of boats. It still contains toxins but they
are harmful only to organisms that are stuck to the boat.
Because it is hazardous and toxic to humans it is not used in any
other application of modern life.
Read more about tin pollution at:
http://www.mbhs.edu/departments/magnet/coursesandlife/RandE/matsci/stephen.html
Read more about ocean pollution at:
http://www.southwark.gov.uk/Uploads/FILE_13840.pdf
Read more about water-sport and pollution at:
http://www.southwark.gov.uk/Uploads/FILE_13840.pdf
Read more about offshore-racing Norway at:
http://www.aktivioslo.no/kunder/offshorevm/

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