cause and investigation of wildfires nationally, 6,937,584 wildland acres were burned by 88,458 fires in 2002. --national fire news

Cause and Investigation of Wildfires
Nationally, 6,937,584 wildland acres were burned by 88,458 fires in
2002.
--National Fire News
"Investigators agree that human activities, not lightning, are
responsible for nine out of 10 wildfires...About three-quarters of the
human-caused fires result from carelessness."
--Inland Valley Daily Bulletin, 1 November 2003
Background
The causes of wildland fires are too numerous to mention, from
lightning to arson to obscure events like a spark ignited by a piece
of equipment or machinery or a downed power line.
Investigating a wildfire is much different than the investigation of a
structure fire. Wildfires are not structure fires outdoors. The
factors influencing fire development are different, fire suppression
tactics are different, and fire investigation nuances are different.
Wildfire investigations involve specialized techniques, practices,
equipment and terminology. While basic principles of fire science and
dynamics are the same, in a wildfire scenario, the fire development
and spread is influenced by different and sometimes additional
factors. Wildfires are driven by variable environmental conditions:
fuel load, wind, weather, topography. Fire suppression activities,
such as backfires and fire lines, can influence the natural
progression of the fire and affect fire patterns the investigator will
have to interpret. In many cases, the fire may have destroyed
thousands of acres.
Causes of Wildfires
Wildland fire causes are varied and the most common ones differ
substantially from the most common structure fire causes. Major
wildland fire causes (as enumerated by NFPA 9211) and potential
indicators of that cause are as follows.
1. Incendiary Fire. Wildland fires set intentionally often begin in
accessible areas because they are easily reached, but often lightly
traveled--and therefore the fire setter is less likely to be
discovered. The method of ignition varies and may be immediate or an
improvised delay device. Juveniles may intentionally or accidentally
set a fire using matches2, a lighter, or other device. Incendiary
fires can be confirmed by ignition source remnants, ignitable liquid
residue, evidence of human presence (such as footprints or tire
prints), multiple points of ignition, trailers, and remains of delay
devices. The method of ignition is limited only by the imagination of
the arsonist, but Kirk's Fire Investigation reports that the most
common time-delay device is a bundle of matches or matchbook
surrounding a burning cigarette.
The remains of ignition materials, such as cigarettes, can be very
fragile. Before collecting these items, they should be photographed
and documented. If a cigarette is involved, be sure to collect it for
class characteristics identification, fingerprint analysis, and
possible DNA analysis.
2. Lightning. When lighting strikes, it can spark a fire. Lightning
often strikes trees, power lines and transmission towers, and rocky
peaks. Lightning can also strike open ground. Lightning can splinter
or explode the item it strikes and can also leave a glassy residue,
called fulgurites, as the heat melts sand on the ground or on
vegetation. Lightning strikes can be confirmed by the weather service
or a lightning detection service. A fire might not start immediately
after a lightning strike. The fire can smolder for some period of time
before becoming a full wildfire.
3. Spontaneous Combustion. There are fuels that can self-heat to
temperatures sufficient for ignition. These fuels include hay, grain
dust, wood chips, and manure. Spontaneous heating to ignition
temperature occurs when heat from exothermic chemical or biological
processes does not dissipate, usually because of restricted airflow.
This often happens in large piles of the self-heating fuel, or in hot
conditions that increase the temperature of the material. Heating is
accelerated on warm, humid days. Unburned amounts of the
spontaneously-heated mixture may remain after the fire if flame did
not reach the bottom of the pile and/or if there was not sufficient
oxygen flow through the pile for complete burning.
4. Campfires. Campfires, especially if left unattended or improperly
extinguished, can spread to adjoining fuels and start a wildfire.
Clues that a campfire was present can include rock circles, dug pits
with large amounts of ash, and garbage from human activity. Because
campfires are started by human activity, witnesses can be vital
sources of information on the incipient fire.
5. Smoking Materials. Discarded smoking materials can ignite a
wildfire, however the conditions must be conducive to ignition in the
time the smoking material is still burning before it consumes itself
and dies out. Even though smoking materials burn at a very high
temperature, if that heat does not come into close, confined contact
with a dry, fine fuel, ignition will probably not occur. The filter or
butt of the smoking material may still be present after the fire.
Smoking materials are discarded by people, therefore witnesses are
important sources of information.
6. Outdoor Debris Burning. In many locations, outdoor debris burning
is permitted. Where it is not permitted, persons may still illegally
burn refuse. Especially if conditions are dry, outdoor burning can get
out of control and spread to vegetation in the surrounding area.
Witnesses are a good source of information about outdoor burning
because intentional outdoor burns are started, and sometimes
monitored, by people. In addition, some of the materials being burned
may remain after the fire, a container (such as an oil drum) that
items were burned in may remain, and accelerant residue from an
ignitable liquid used to start the burn may remain.
7. Electricity, Oil, and Gas Machinery. Power transmission lines are a
common source of ignition of wildfires. The ways in which power lines
can start fires include:
a.
Electrical transformer malfunction or explosion, dropping flaming,
sparking, or hot material onto fuels. Damage to the electrical
equipment over the area of origin is often present.
b.
Overhead power lines coming in contact with trees. This ignition
will often leave a brand where the power line and the tree made
contact.
c.
Animals short-circuiting the power line, then falling to the
ground and spreading flame to fuels.
d.
Fallen wires from wind or storm damage spark and ignite fuels.
Damage to the electrical equipment over the area of origin is
often present.
e.
Arcing between conductors brought into accidental contact, often
by high winds and/or tree limbs.
f.
Trees falling on power lines and grounding them. Damage to the
electrical equipment over the area of origin is often present.
Oil and gas drilling also involves flammable and electrical materials
that can start a fire.
8. Equipment. Machinery and vehicles in wildland areas are subject to
electrical and mechanical failure or overheating that can spark a
fire. Equipment also often requires ignitable liquids, such as
gasoline, that can start a fire if ignited by a spark or other flame
source.
9. Railroad. Trains can emit sparks, heat, and hot materials that can
ignite nearby fuels. Possible sources of flame and/or heat include
exhaust fumes, hot brake metal, and overheated wheel bearings.
Railroad crews cutting, grinding, and welding track are the source of
some railroad fires. An area of origin near railroad tracks should be
checked out with the railroad to see if a train, train equipment, or
the activities of train personnel might have been the source.
10. Fireworks. Fireworks can ignite dry vegetation with sparks and hot
debris. After the fire, part of the firework, its packaging, or a
crater from its explosion may remain. Witnesses are an important
source of information.
11. Controlled Burn. A controlled burn set for land management
purposes can grow into an uncontrolled wildfire.
12. Natural Disaster. Lava and superheated ash from volcanic activity
can spark fires. When volcanic material heated to thousands of degrees
comes in contact with fuel, the fuel can combust. Volcanic activity in
the United States is tracked and can be verified by the U.S.
Geological Survey (volcanoes.usgs.gov). Volcanic events are usually
well documented.
13. Focusing of Sunlight. Glass fragments with lens properties and
concave reflective metal objects can focus light rays into a small
area, concentrating the heat from the sun. This concentrated heat can
reach sufficient temperature to ignite the fuel it illuminates.
Remnants of the focusing object may remain after the fire.
Spread of Wildfires
Wildland fires spread in two phases. First, convected heat causes the
fire to spread from low vegetation such as grasses, underbrush and
leaf litter (ground fuels) to higher vegetation (aerial fuels) such as
tree branches, often via the mid-sized vegetation. In this phase, the
fire grows vertically. As the fire increases in intensity and size,
involving fuels at all levels, radiant heat becomes the primary method
of spread at both the aerial and ground fuel levels, and the fire
grows laterally. All of these factors interact, producing a sometimes
complex web of forces that shape the fire spread. How fuels ignite and
fire spreads are heavily influenced by:
1. Vegetation type, availability and density. In structure fires, the
most common fuels are construction materials, furnishings and personal
belongings. In a wildland environment, these structure fire fuels only
come into play if the fire reaches an inhabited area. In wildfires,
the most common fuels are wood and vegetation, both live and
decomposing.
The composition of the fuel, including moisture content, mineral
content, and oil content is a factor in fire ignition and spread.
Effects vary because there are many species of vegetation, all with
different chemical and biological compositions. In addition, the
effects of topography, weather, and the fire itself must be considered
before fire behavior can be accurately described. Kirk's Fire
Investigation notes that grass burns differently depending on factors
like moisture content and blade height. Dry grass flashes quickly and
burns out. Green grass dries out as the fire passes over, but may not
ignite. However, that same grass, now dried by the fire, provides fuel
for re-burn. There is also ignition and burning variability within a
class of fuel. All wood does not burn equally. For example, because of
the high resin content, pine burns faster and more fiercely than
harder woods like oak.
NFPA 921 defines two classes of wildland materials for the purposes of
flammability analysis: ground fuels and aerial fuels.
a. Ground fuels "include all flammable materials lying on or
immediately above the ground or in the ground" (NFPA 921; section
23.2.2). Examples of ground fuels are duff, peat soils, tree roots,
leaf litter, grass, low brush, and dead wood. NFPA 921 includes a
detailed discussion of the flammability potential of each of these
fuels. In general, dead leaves and coniferous litter, especially dry
pine needles and fine dead wood (diameter of less than 2 in.), can
play the greatest role in fire spread because they are easily dried
out and loosely arranged, allowing free flow of air around them. Fine,
dead wood ignites easily and is often the kindling for larger fuels,
like downed logs and large tree limbs. Not all ground fuels
necessarily accelerate fire spread. For example, low brush might
actually retard fire spread because it can hold moisture in at the
ground level, keeping leaf litter wet and therefore less susceptible
to ignition.
b. Aerial fuels "include all green and dead materials located in the
upper forest canopy" (NFPA 921; section, 23.2.3). These materials
include tree branches and crowns, dead trees, tree moss, and high
brush. In these fuels, flammability is generally increased by the
presence of dead branches, coniferous needles, dry stumps and snags.
NFPA 921; sections 23.2.1-23.2.3.4 provides specific information on
each type of wildland fire fuel and how it commonly plays a role in
fire spread.
The "bridge" between ground fuels and aerial fuels is often mid-sized
brush, saplings, partially-downed tree branches, and small trees.
These materials catch fire due to their proximity to flaming ground
fuels, then spread that fire upward to mature trees and outward to
other materials.
2. Wind. Wind plays a major role in fire spread and can change over
the life of the fire. Wind can:
a.
Determine or influence the direction of fire spread.
b.
Accelerate the flame front onto new fuels.
c.
Accelerate evaporation of moisture and dry out fuels in advance of
the fire.
d.
Carry embers and flaming material aloft and deposit them in
unburned areas, possibly igniting spot fires.
The direction and intensity of wind is influenced by global wind
patterns, differences in atmospheric pressure, solar convection,
topography, and the fire itself. Entrainment of air into the rising
fire plume actually creates wind that can further feed the fire's
spread. At its most intense, fire winds can develop into a fire storm,
where indrafts into the convection column can create tornado-like
effects.
3.
Geography and topography. Ground level depression geographic
features, such as valleys, can laterally confine the fire.
Confinement concentrates the heat in a smaller airspace,
increasing combustion and fire spread potential.
a.
Cleared land geographic features, such as wide rivers, cultivated
land, or clearings, can be natural fire breaks. They can be a
barrier to fire spread because the fire cannot leap the
fuel-deficient span. However, this effect is not absolute; wind
can lift burning particles over these natural fire breaks onto a
new fuel load.
b.
The topography of slope, both angle and orientation (to or away
from the sun), can significantly affect fire spread. Slope
increases flame contact with uphill fuels, thereby more rapidly
heating them and increasing combustion potential. Therefore, the
fire burns more intensely and quickly. Uphill winds accelerate
this process, as do slopes that face the drying warmth of the sun.
3.
Climate and weather. Weather, most notably temperature, humidity
and rainfall, can affect both the conditions that contribute to
fire ignition and the spread of the fire. Higher temperatures
can cause fuels to dry out more quickly, and make them more
susceptible to ignition. High humidity and/or rainfall can
retard combustion and fire spread by keeping fuels moist.
Conversely, dry air evaporates moisture from fuels, making them
more susceptible to combustion.
5. Fire suppression tactics. Fire suppression tactics can also affect
fire spread and the interpretation of fire indicators. Methods of
wildfire suppression include:
a.
Fire lines, which are manmade barriers to fire spread, such as
trenches and expanses of cleared vegetation.
b.
Air drops, which are the deployment of water or fire retardant
from aircraft onto the fire and/or onto uninvolved areas to hinder
fire development.
c.
Firing out or backfires, which is controlled burning of the fuel
between the control line and the fire head to stop the advance of
the fire by depriving it of combustible fuel.
d.
Class A Foam, which may be applied to slow burning fuels to
extinguish them and/or applied to unburned fuels as a protective
barrier against ignition.
During the suppression of a wildland fire, there may be opportunities
to make tactical choices that help preserve fire patterns and
evidence. If possible, fire service personnel should:
a.
Limit the application of water to areas that have already burned.
These areas may contain important clues to fire spread and cause
and these indicators may be obliterated by copious amounts of
water.
b.
Limit dragging hose through burned areas. Dragging can obliterate
patterns and destroy fragile evidence.
c.
Park firefighting vehicles away from burned areas. Vehicles and
the associated foot traffic may trample evidence and indicators.
Be especially sensitive to this possibility at roadside fires,
where, if an arsonist set the fire, there may be tire tracks,
footprints, and trace evidence at the roadside.
Investigation of Wildfires
1. Scene Preservation. As with structure fire investigations,
protecting the integrity of the fire scene is the key to preserving
evidence. All scenes should be treated as a potential crime scene
until the cause has been determined to be accidental or natural.
Traffic through potential area(s) of origin should be limited to only
necessary personnel for fire suppression, safety and investigation. A
perimeter should be established and secured by physical barrier (rope,
tape, etc) and law enforcement personnel deployed to enforce it.
However, many wildland fires burn very large areas and it may not be
possible to encircle the perimeter of the entire burn area. In these
cases, the investigator should identify potential area(s) of origin as
soon as possible, then establish a physical, patrolled perimeter
around those areas. All personnel who enter and exit the area should
do so through controlled points, logging in and out.
2. Observation and Documentation. Many of the same best practices in
observation of a structure fire scene apply to a wildland fire scene.
These include:
a.
Taking contact information from all witnesses as soon as possible.
b.
Recording vehicle tag information for vehicles in the wildfire
area, as well as location and direction of any moving vehicles.
c.
Recording physical descriptions and contact information of anyone
in a crowd watching the fire; arsonists have been known to watch
their handiwork. Also record information for anyone on horseback.
d.
Examining the area of origin for (1) ignitable liquid containers,
(2) for signs of a delay device or incendiary device, (3) for
signs of potential causes, such as campfire rings, glassy residue
from a lightning strike, or machinery and (4) for trace evidence,
such as footprints and tire tracks.
Documentation includes the same best practices as a structure fire:
videotaping and photographing fire patterns, photographing all
evidence items in place, creating necessary diagrams with all features
and sampling locations noted, and keeping an evidence log. Aerial
photographs may be particularly helpful in a wildfire investigation.
With preservation, observation, and documentation underway, the
systematic approach for evaluating the scene is the same as for a
structure fire: determine area of origin, then determine cause and
chain of events. Determining origin is often a process of tracing back
the fire flow from the front of the fire to the area of origin. To
assist the investigator, there are numerous indicators of how the fire
spread and which direction it came from. Because so many factors
influence a wildfire and interact to produce different effects, the
investigator must seek to establish a pattern of indicators and
evidence, not solely one factor.
Analyzing Wildfire Spread
When analyzing fire spread, investigators refer to the "fire head" and
"fire heel." The fire head is the portion of the fire moving most
rapidly, and generally is the most intense. Fire heel is at the
opposite side of the fire head. According to NFPA 921, the fire at the
heel is less intense and will generally be "backing," or burning
slowly against the wind or downhill.
According to NFPA 921, starting from the outer limit of the fire and
interpreting directional indicators such as burn patterns and char
patterns back to the point of origin is the accepted technique in
wildfire investigation. NFPA 921 lists nine major visual indicators of
the direction of fire spread:
1. Wildfire "V" patterns. A wildfire "V" pattern is not the same as a
"V" pattern in a structure fire. A structure fire "V" pattern is
generated by a plume of flame spreading vertically from the base of
the fire. In a wildfire, the "V" pattern is a horizontal burn on the
ground's surface, where the base of the "V" may be the point of
origin. The pattern is affected by wind direction, slope, and other
factors.
2.
Degree of damage. Fire intensity and direction can be gauged
by the degree of damage to fuels. Damage to vertical items
like trees will be greater on the side from which the fire
approached. Therefore, the direction the more damaged sides
face points toward the area of origin.
3.
Grass stems. Fire burns the grass stem bases first and the
stalks fall over because their weight is no longer
supported. Stalks that fall forward are subsequently
consumed as fire moves over them. Stalks that fall backward
sometimes remain unburned and generally point in the
direction that the fire approached. However, the direction
of fall may be influenced by wind and should not be taken as
the single absolute indicator. Walking in the direction the
unburned stalks point can bring the investigator closer to
the area of origin.
4. Brush patterns. When fire starts in ground fuels, as many wildfires
do, it takes a period of time for that fire to generate enough heat
and intensity to spread to aerial fuels. Therefore, at the back edge
of the fire, which may be near the point of origin, less upper foliage
may be burned than at the front of the fire. In addition, at the back
edge, there may be upper branches that have fallen to the ground
unburned because the fire under them, which had not yet reached the
treetops, burned away the support for the upper branches.
5. Ash deposits. Ash can assist the investigative interpretation in
several ways:
a.
The pattern of ash dispersion can assist in determining wind
direction.
b.
The amount of ash can indicate the relative amount of fuel load.
c.
Where ash fell on intact fuels may assist the investigator in
determining the sequence of the burning.
6.
Cupping. If a fire burns away the tree trunk, the remaining
stump will be "cupped" on the side facing the fire. The
sharpened point will be on the side away from the fire's
approach; thus the cupped sides face in the direction of the
fire origin. This effect can be seen on many types of
vegetation, including grass. On grass, the protected side
can be felt by rubbing the hand against the grass. When
rubbed in the direction the fire burned, the grass feels
velvety.
7.
Die-out pattern. As the fire dies, there is less damage and
charring. Thus, moving into the more damaged areas from the
die-out edges brings the investigator closer to the fire
origin.
8.
Charring and tree damage. Charring is deeper on the side of
the fuel facing the oncoming fire because that side faced
the heat of the fire. Relative char depth can help the
investigator determine which side is more charred. If the
investigator puts the deeper char to his/her back and walks,
they are walking toward the origin of the fire. The same is
true of destruction of vegetation; it will be more severe on
the side the fire approached from. As fire spreads up a
tree, the wind will drive the fire away from windward
foliage, leaving it less damaged. Sometimes, the treetops
may have a triangular unburned area on the approaching fire
side. Fast moving fire can "bevel" the ends of branches,
blunting branches on the approach side and tapering branches
on the other side. Walk in the direction the rounded
branches point to walk toward the fire's origin. The char
patterns on the tree trunk can assist in determining wind
direction, which will help interpret patterns and trace fire
spread. The following diagram shows how this works:
9.
Patterns on unburned items. Direction of fire travel and
intensity may be indicated by sooty deposits left on
unburned and/or noncombustible items. These indicators can
be protected items and patterns, heavier staining and
sooting on the side of an item that faced the approaching
fire, and loss of material as indicated by lines of
demarcation. The heat damage on non-combustibles will be
greater on the side from which the fire approached because
the object shields the back of the object. Non-combustibles
can include signs, rocks, steel fence posts, and stone
walls. Very large noncombustibles can provide a barrier to
fire movement, protecting the items and areas behind them.
Contradictory or confusing indicators are often present close to the
fire origin because, at the time they were created, the fire was
undeveloped and had not yet established a direction. Fire damage may
be close to the ground only and items may be only partially burned in
strange ways.
Sources of Wildfire Investigative Information
In addition to the physical evidence of the burn, there are many other
sources of investigative information:
1.
Witnesses to the incipient fire. Witnesses who are present when
the fire starts and/or those who first report the fire may have
seen it in its early stages and can provide information on the
physical characteristics of the fire, anyone else seen in the
area, and the location and behavior of the fire.
2.
Other witnesses who observed the fire, persons in the vicinity of
the fire, and situations and events surrounding the fire.
3.
Neighbors and persons familiar with the area where the fire
started. These persons can provide information on and facts about
that area, including common and uncommon activities in and uses
for the area of origin. For example, they may know that the area
is a popular off-roading destination or that cars are rarely seen
there or that teenagers often build bonfires and holding drinking
parties.
4.
Agencies responsible for tracking fires, predicting weather, and
recording natural disasters. Wildland fires may be caused by
lightning, natural disaster, or other Earth event. All possible
natural causes must be considered and eliminated. Data collection
agencies can provide the necessary information to determine if a
natural cause might be possible. NOAA can advise on lightning
strikes, and U.S. Geological Survey can provide data on natural
disasters, including volcanic activity.
5. Utility companies. Fires can be sparked by utilities equipment,
including electricity, gas, and oil. Two common causes are electrical
power lines being downed by weather and transformer malfunctions that
shower flaming and/or sparking debris to the ground. Check with the
utility companies to determine if a malfunction occurred in the fire
area and how it might have caused ignition.
6. Private and commercial pilots. Often, wildland fires are initially
spotted by pilots, who then report them to the tower. In addition,
pilots have a unique perspective on the development of the fire
because they view it from the air. Record aircraft information,
including N-number (visible on the side of private planes) of any
aircraft seen in the area.
7. Aerial surveillance such as satellite imaging, video reference
footage taken from aircraft, and infrared imaging can provide a visual
record documenting the fire's development and may assist in
determining the area of origin and pattern of fire spread.
8. Professionals who responded to the fire. The observations and
actions of professionals who respond to the fire can provide key
insight into the fire's characteristics, movement, and behavior.
Professionals may also have seen persons, vehicles, and activities in
the fire area that may provide the investigator with facts about cause
and responsibility. Persons interviewed should include:
a.
The first responding unit, which may be law enforcement or fire.
b.
The initial attack crew.
c.
Airborne responders.
d.
All professionals who spoke with and/or interviewed witnesses.
Conclusion
The investigation of wildfire requires specific expertise and
extensive knowledge of fire spread. It often involves collaboration
between public and private fire investigators. Early notification of
fire origin and cause experts to get them to the fire scene is
essential.
PHILA1\2361094\1 099995.000
1 NFPA 921 Guide for Fire and Explosion Investigations (2001 Edition);
Chapter 23.
2 While the Hayman fire did not involve a juvenile, Paul Steensland, a
senior special agent with the U.S. Forest Service, found "...three
matches stuck head-first into the ground, spaced a half-inch apart,"
at the point of origin of the Hayman Fire, which burned 137,000 acres
and destroyed 133 homes southwest of Denver, CO (Inland Valley Daily
Bulletin, November 1, 2003). Investigators believe that Terry Barton,
a former Forest Service seasonal worker who pleaded guilty to starting
the Hayman Fire, put the matches in the ground. Even after that
devastation, the evidence was still there.
16

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