c.p.n. patron: lord david ramsbotham promoting excellence in therapy in prisons. the 5 -year strategy.


C.P.N.

Patron: Lord David Ramsbotham
Promoting Excellence in Therapy
In Prisons.
The 5 -Year Strategy.
Peter Jones. RMN. MA. FBACP.
----------------------------
Chair: Counselling In Prisons Network
-------------------------------------
Contents.
Foreword Page 3
Introduction Page4
1. Background. Page 5
2. Ethical framework. Page 6
3. Context. Page 7
4. The Strategy. Page 7
5. Focus of the Strategy. Page 8
6. Vision Statement. Page 9
7. Training and Development. Page 9
8. Strategic Framework: The Chair Model. Page 10
9 Concluding Remarks. Page 10
Appendix 1. Terms of Reference: Expert Reference Group
Appendix 2. Integrated Care Pathway for Victims of Trauma.
Appendix 3. Proposed Structure: Expert Reference Group
Appendix 4. 3 stage Model: A client-centered model.
Appendix 5. Tools for Change
Appendix 6. Theoretical Framework. Reducing Victimology.
Appendix 7. Re-victimisation Equation.
Appendix 8. Work Programme. Counselling in Prisons Network. 2009 –
2010.
Appendix 9. Work Programme. Expert Reference Group. 5 Year
Strategy.
Appendix 10. Strategic Framework: The Chair Model.
Foreword.
I am delighted to have the opportunity to introduce this important
document which will help us to better understand and therefore better
address the complex needs of many of those held within in our prison
system.
Seven years as head of prison health and then director of the wider
offender health field demonstrated very graphically just how great are
the needs of those in the criminal justice system and, despite the
great advances in recent years just how much further we have to go to
really get to grips with the challenges that this population presents.
Many of those held within our prisons have themselves been victims of
abusive relationships in their earlier lives and our prisons would not
seem to be the obvious place to start to identify and address those
needs. However over recent years, driven by the professional passion
and vision of Peter Jones the need to address these issues and the
ability to do so have been developing steadily.
This document builds on the early work, started some 10 years ago,
which took a major step forward 3 years ago with the development of
the counselling in prisons network. It recognises and is founded upon
the need to pool expertise and best practice and to develop the
research base so as to start to deliver the excellence of service that
the needs of this population warrants.
I believe that this strategy, the first in the UK and probably in
Europe will help institutions and their staff to better recognise and
be better equipped to deliver the response required to help people
understand and deal with what has happened in their lives. In doing so
it has the potential to enhance staff skills and thereby their ability
to help those in their care. More importantly through that help it
offers the likelihood of the system helping people to better address
their offending behaviour and adjust their lives to ones, which cause
them and society less distress.
John Boyington CBE
Introduction
This document will seek to move forward the work of therapy in our
prisons in a constructive, pragmatic and ethical way. Its primary
focus is to promote excellence in practice, by providing frameworks
that can be easily built into both the custodial setting and the
criminal justice arena generally.
It will seek to lay essential foundations that can be built upon
whilst providing a more joined up approach to delivering therapy
within the context of the criminal justice system.
Providing any sort of therapy in the custodial setting is both
challenging and problematical. However it is for these reasons that
this strategy is written; to empower both the therapist and the
offender alike in their pursuit of excellence and growth.
Peter Jones RMN MA FBACP
Chair Counselling in Prisons Network
Dedication
This Document is dedicated to the people we seek to serve on the
margins of our society. This document will seek to bring hope, healing
and a purpose to those whose lives are broken.
1. Background.
1.
It is very clear that counselling and psychological therapy have
a significant role to play in addressing the complex needs of
offenders, ex-offenders, and other groups within the criminal
justice system, particularly in terms of non –pharmacological
intervention The emotional needs and the existence of
pre-existing undiagnosed mental illness and imported distress
appear to be frequently unrecognized, under-researched, often
under-reported by prisoners and consequently often go untreated.
This is particularly so within the context of the criminal
justice system. Current evidence as to how these prisoners
engage with professional staff in custodial settings prior to
and following disclosure of pre-existing undiagnosed mental
illness or trauma - such as abuse as a child or having been
raped as an adult - is scant and requires further study. This
document provides a proposed strategy and framework for the
instigation of a considered response to the area of disclosed
trauma or imported distress in custodial environments and the
role of psychological therapy in the engagement of offenders,
and the management and treatment of these complex and hidden
needs.
2.
It is suggested that what is required is the establishment of an
integrated and co-ordinated approach, which addresses the
complex needs of offenders who have suffered some form or sexual
violence or trauma. There is a need for the development of a
range of informed responses within the institutional setting and
within the wider criminal justice system. Such a range of
services could begin to address the psychological, emotional and
therapeutic needs of those offenders who disclose abuse and
trauma and other associated mental health issues.
2.
To begin this process the Counselling in Prisons Network was
formed in 2007. In June 2008 the inaugural conference took place
at York St John University. In order to support the work of the
Network a multi –agency Expert Reference Group will be formed
and launched in June 2010, the terms of reference of which can
be found in Appendix 1. This will provide a coherent framework
to support the development of a range of approaches. It will
also oversee the delivery of this 5-year strategy and will seek
to form effective partnerships and collaborations to make this
possible The establishment of an integrated care pathway whereby
prison staff can be informed about how to deal with disclosure
in an appropriate way when it occurs is a key element. A variety
of training resources have been developed to support such staff,
as well as assisting those individuals who disclose abuse and
trauma issues. The mapping of pathways that provide access to
those staff with appropriate skills to engage with such
individuals, both within custodial settings and in the community
provides a further tier to the framework. The strategy is
intended to be supported by research into the effectiveness and
impact of pilot approaches, leading to the further roll-out of
the strategy.
2.
This document acknowledges the excellent work of the Listening
service in prisons, as well the work of the chaplaincy and
Samaritans whilst at the same time recognizing the work of the
counsellor / therapist To that end a whole-systems approach will
be taken in meeting the complex needs of offenders /
ex-offenders. This ethos is outlined in the 3-stage model
(Appendix 4) and the integrated care pathway (Appendix 2).
2. Ethical Framework.
This framework exists to provide a touchstone that informs behavior
and attitudes of staff in their interactions with offenders,
ex-offenders and other marginalized groups within the Criminal Justice
System as applied to the disclosure of sexual violence and trauma.
This section sets out clearly the ethical framework necessary for the
safe engagement, management, and treatment of offenders and
ex-offenders disclosing sexual violence, trauma or imported distress
These ethical principles will permeate the whole of the strategy. The
following are predicated on the principles articulated in the Ethical
Framework for Good Practice in Counselling and Psychotherapy (BACP
2010).
1.
Basic Justice. This principle asserts the need to demonstrate
just and impartial treatment of all those within the Criminal
Justice System and the provision of adequate and fairly
distributed services. The principle re-states the need to
respect the human rights and dignity of offenders. It implies
attention to legal obligations. It includes the commitment to
equality of opportunity, and to avoidance of discrimination.
2.2 Beneficence. This principle involves a commitment to promoting the
offender’s well-being and to working in his / her best interests based
on professional assessment. Ensuring that the offender’s best
interests are served requires monitoring of practice and outcomes,
including thorough research and systematic reflection. There is an
obligation to use regular and on-going supervision to enhance the
quality of the services provided and to update practice by continuing
professional development. The obligation to act in the best interests
of the offender may be highlighted by the person’s reduced capacity
for autonomy, lack of understanding, extreme distress, or any of the
range of personal constraints, which are a feature of the custodial
setting.
3.
Non-maleficence. Non-maleficence refers to the avoidance of
sexual, financial, and emotional or any other form of harm to or
exploitation of the offender/ex-offender. This involves the
practitioner in monitoring any threats to personal competence or
fitness to practice. The practitioner has an ethical
responsibility to strive to mitigate any harm caused to an
offender/ex-offender even when the harm is unavoidable or
unintended. The principle includes the responsibility to
challenge, where appropriate, the perceived incompetence or
malpractice of others involved in safeguarding the welfare of
offenders.
3.
Respect for the autonomy of others. This principle implies
respect for the offender’s basic right to be self-governing. The
custodial environment places a range of constraints on the
offender, who, bearing these constraints in mind, is perceived
as having the basic human right to decision-making and
self-determination. It is essential to provide accurate
information about the therapy provided, including details of the
degree of voluntariness of participation in the therapy. There
should be clear contracting regarding participation, with limits
to confidentiality set out. The principle of autonomy opposes
the manipulation of offenders against their will, with whatever
perceived justification.
3.
Maintenance of trust. This principle implies that practitioners
will make every effort to ensure those offenders’ expectations
of them and of the therapeutic intervention are ones that have
reasonable prospects of being met. They should strive at all
times to adhere to contracts and agreements made with offenders
and employing organisations. The maintenance of confidentiality
is seen as an obligation arising from the offender’s trust,
meaning that any disclosure of confidential information about
offenders should be restricted to furthering the purposes for
which it was originally disclosed.
3. Context.
3.1 The scale and nature of imported distress, trauma and historical
abuse is unknown and constitutes a form of hidden crisis in the
custodial setting and in the Criminal Justice System generally. There
is a clear lack of evidence as to exact numbers of offenders who
suffer from imported distress or pre-existing undiagnosed mental
illness and are resident within the custodial setting and within the
system generally. In the light of the Corston Report (2007) and the
Bradley Report (2009) this document seeks to address these complex
needs in a proactive and ethical way.
3.2 Coping mechanisms and maladaptive behaviour appear to include the
development of mental ill health, addictions, aggression, and
self-injury.
3.3 The custodial regime does not generally appear to facilitate
disclosure or therapeutic growth in victims of trauma or abuse.
4. The Strategy.
4.1 The central aim of this strategy is to begin to develop a
constructive and therapeutic culture that promotes both psychological
growth for the offenders and ex-offenders and offers the opportunity
for healthy relationships between staff and inmates to develop, where
abuse issues, trauma or pre-existing trauma is disclosed. The training
and development component of this document is designed to facilitate
this process. Appendix 3 outlines the process. The primary aim is to
reduce re-victimization of victim’s (Appendices 6 and 7 outlines the
process and theoretical framework.)
4.2 The overall purpose of the strategy is -
--------------------------------------------
4.2.1 To equip therapists and criminal justice personnel to engage
with offenders/ ex-offenders whilst providing these individuals with
an understanding of offenders’ complex needs and perspective in such a
way as to encourage and manage disclosures of trauma, imported
distress in a health-promoting appropriately ethical way.
4.2.2 To raise awareness of both staff and prisoners in relation to
the complex psychological and emotional issues faced by the victim of
sexual abuse within the institutional setting through the introduction
of awareness-raising material. The goal of this is to provide a deeper
understanding of these issues.
4.2.3 To prepare prison personnel in the effective and safe management
of offenders /ex-offenders who have been victims of sexual violence
and trauma.
4.2.4 In terms of offenders seeking therapeutic and help and support,
the aim is to reduce challenging and difficult behavior and to provide
effective therapeutic interventions within the institutional setting
by providing a bridge that reduces re-victimization and facilitates
empowerment. It also seeks to reduce related mental health problems.
Appendix 7 outlines this process in terms of the re –victimization
equation.
5. Focus of the Strategy.
This section outlines the four main areas that this strategy attempts
to address. The approach is based on the single aim of reducing
re-victimization of the offender and therefore reducing associated
mental health problems and maladaptive behaviors. It puts the victim
at the center of the process. Appendix 4 and Appendix 5 outlines this
in more detail.
5.1 Raising the awareness of Criminal Justice personnel whilst
deepening their understanding of offenders/ex-offenders who have
suffered trauma or have some form of imported distress, making
engagement more effective, and reducing barriers between staff and
victim.
5.2 Creating a constructive and therapeutic regime within which
offenders / ex-offenders can disclose their abuse/ trauma /imported
distress to Officers on the landing, and within the prison as a whole,
and thereby potentially reducing the time between suffering as a
victim and getting help.
5.3 Identifying appropriate care pathways for victims of sexual
abuse/trauma /imported distress both inside and outside the prison in
order to support the victim in their treatment and recovery. Appendix
2 outlines the pathway.
5.4 Providing a clear understanding of the role of counselling
/therapy within in the Criminal Justice system and life of the person
receiving the therapy.
6. Vision Statement.
6.1 To develop a coordinated and integrated approach for victims of
sexual abuse/trauma/imported distress. This strategy draws upon
inter-agency skills and insights in order to assess the capacity of
the person for change.
6.2 To train staff in the identification and engagement of offenders
/ex-offenders who have some form of imported distress, trauma or
historical abuse.
6.3 To empower professionals in custodial contexts with the knowledge
and skills of a variety of appropriate methods to promote positive
change in the life of the offender/ ex –offender and of the staff
within these institutions.
6.4 To facilitate safe and constructive disclosure of historical
abuse, trauma and imported distress within the custodial setting.
6.5 To engage with offenders /ex-offenders and trauma, in a way that
can promote psychological growth for the victim and positive change
within the institution.
6.6 To identify effective and appropriate treatment for victims and
victim offenders.
7. Training and development.
7.1 Training and development of counsellors and prison personnel in
the engagement management and treatment of offenders who present with
complex needs is a cornerstone of the strategy. The primary aim of the
training is to educate Criminal Justice personnel through
evidence-based interactive training as well as promoting best
practice. The tools for change (Appendix 5) outline this intervention
in more detail. This will be delivered in a number of ways, including
a comprehensive training handbook, video/DVD and CD-rom. In the form
of an interactive textbook
2.
The establishment of Regional Training Hubs. These will be
locally driven in order to prioritise and deliver relevant
training in the most accessible way.
2.
The development a co-coordinated formal U.K wide academic
network to provide accredited training and drive local research
agendas in relation to therapy in the Custodial setting and the
criminal justice system generally.
2.
International networks to promote, share and pool best practice
in relation to therapy in the custodial setting and the Criminal
Justice System generally.
8. Strategic Framework: The Chair Model.
This framework not only provides a summary of the various work streams
of the strategy but also illustrates how intrinsically linked the work
steams are. The four identified streams are:
*
Training and Development
*
Ethical Practice
*
Best Practice
*
Relationship
*
Regime
*
Evidence Base
Appendix 10 illustrates this in the form of a chair. It demonstrates
explicitly the interdependence within and between the different work
streams. In order to effectively deliver the strategy all the
identified work streams need to be addressed in a balanced and rounded
way.
9. Concluding Remarks.
This document provides a concrete, tangible and ethical response to a
hidden crisis in the Criminal Justice System. Working with victims of
sexual violence and trauma within the custodial setting will always be
perceived as problematic. However, failing to take appropriate action
is no longer an option. The response needs to be more than just
rhetoric. The interventions proposed in the strategy document are
practical and realistic and as such provide a sound basis for
development and a foundational framework for progress.
Author: Peter Jones RMN MA FBACP FHEA
Chair; Counselling in Prisons Network.
For further information and copies
www.pn.counselling.co.uk
Appendix 1. Terms of Reference.
Expert Reference Group – Therapy in the Criminal Justice system.
Chair and UK Lead: Peter Jones RMN MA FBACP
Members:
Regional Leads
North East, East, South East, North West, South West, Wales, Scotland.
Vision
======
To pool expertise and best practice, to identify research agendas and
develop excellence in working with offenders, with a view to pushing
back the boundaries of understanding and practice.
=====================================================================
Aims of Group.
1.
To monitor and deliver the 5 year strategy – Promoting Excellence
in Therapy in Prisons.
2.
To develop and agree best practice for the engagement, management
and treatment of female and male offenders who are resident in the
custodial setting abs other marginalized groups within the
Criminal Justice System.
3.
To deliver relevant and appropriate training in relation to female
and male offenders who are resident in the custodial setting and
other marginalized groups within the Criminal Justice System.
4.
To identity and promote best practice in working with male /
female offenders and other marginalized groups within the Criminal
Justice System
5.
To identify, develop and produce research agendas in relation to
the engagement, management and treatment of female and male
offenders
6.
To conduct research in the engagement, management and treatment of
female and male offenders whom are resident within the custodial
setting.
7.
To develop and identify expertise and a strong knowledge base in
relation to the engagement, management and treatment of female and
male offenders who are resident within the custodial setting
Objectives of Group.
1.
To pool expertise; share knowledge through networking, conferences
and a virtual learning site.
2.
To provide support to members of the Network in their counselling
and therapeutic practice
3.
To conduct relevant research in order to inform practice and
development.
4.
To develop international networks through appropriate
organisations
Appendix 2.
Referral Care Pathway for Victims of Sexual Violence and Trauma.
A co-ordinated and integrated approach to managing disclosures.
Victim makes disclosure.
(Stage 1 of 3 Stage model.)

Information passed to victim re: services.

Information passed to Offender supervisor, who co-ordinates referral
process.

Action 1.
Counselling not appropriate
a nd not requested by victim.
Action 2.
(Stage 2 of 3 Stage model.)
Counselling appropriate and requested by victim.

A ction agreed with victim as to what they require.
Referral passed on to In-reach CMHT who meet victim and make initial
assessment within 2 weeks of disclosure.

N ominated personnel within the institutional setting to
support victim for interim period.
S upport from nominated personnel within institutional setting.
Formulation of action plan at care conference to decide alternative
course of action for victim.
Action plan agreed with victim.
Information passed on to Offender supervisor re: outcome.

Primary Healthcare counselling agree as appropriate intervention.

In-depth counselling.
(Stage 3 of 3 Stage model.)

End of therapeutic support.
Case conference called to discuss victim progress and future support.
PW Jones
Appendix 3.
Proposed Structure.

The strategy document will consider the following framework in terms
of training, supervision, monitoring and evaluation of the 5-year
strategy, and within a regional context.
Regional leads would be appointed in relation to the each group/region
within the Counselling in Prisons Network. These would provide
supervision, support, training and monitoring for the regions, and
would report and form the core membership of the expert reference
group, thus providing coverage, feedback and networking for
progression and development in this area over the next 5 – 10 years.
These will be focused within local multi-agency reference groups,
driven by local need and local agendas. The Chairs of these local
groups will attend the Expert Reference Group and be linked up through
the Virtual network.
The function of the Expert Reference will be to receive feedback from
the Chairs of these regional reference groups, sharing best practice
and delivery and progress of the national strategy. The group will
also identify research agendas and priorities with a view to
developing and acquiring a stronger and more robust evidence base for
practice and service development.
rn regieon
Appendix 4.
A 3 stage client centered model.
Depth of Relationship.
CLIENT NEEDS.
INTERVENTION.
QUALITIES OF HELPER.
DESIRED OUTCOME.
STAGE 1.
Client requests advice. Stage is practical and task orientated.
Prescriptive task, assessment of task. Refer on to the appropriate
agency.
Listening skills, awareness of agencies and information and pertaining
to msa needs aspirations. Basic counseling qualifications.
Client / partner receives appropriate information on agencies
pertaining to their needs. Develop action plan. Agree way forward.
Problem solving approach.
STAGE 2.
Wishes simply to engage professional to tell story.
Requires healthy therapeutic relationship.
Rogerian conditions of unconditional positive regard, unconditional
acceptance, and a safe environment.
Mental health practitioner, RMN. No specialist training in abuse.
Client recounts story and ready to move on. Develop action plan. Agree
way forward. Problem solving approach.
STAGE 3.
Requires in-depth counselling and therapy. Complex psychological and
emotional problems.
In-depth therapeutic work. Treatment.
Qualified counsellor / therapist. Specialist training in msa.
Preferably registered with UKCP / BACP.
Recovery. Client is able to adjust to their psychological problems and
move on.
PW Jones
Appendix 5.
Tools for Change.
Tools for Change.
Content.
For whom and when.
Aims.
Outcome.
Novice.
Video.
Exposure to the issues.
20-minute video.
A victim’s story.
All staff.
For all prisoners at their induction.
Increases awareness for both staff and prisoner.
Develops sensitivity to some of the issues.
Safe management of disclosures.
Appropriate referral within the prison.
Intermediate Level.
CD-Rom Interactive Textbook.
Consolidation of knowledge.
Interactive textbook.
Theoretical and practical.
Users can work through in their own time.
All staff wishing to find out more about sexual violence and trauma.
For prisoners wishing to inform themselves of the issues.
Develops further expertise.
Increases depth of knowledge of working with sexual violence and
trauma.
Provides assessment of developing knowledge.
Safe management of disclosures.
Further develops insight and understanding of working with sexual
violence and trauma.
Practitioner Level.
Training Handbook.
Development of skills.
Training tool, explores the values necessary for effective engagement
and the values of the individual.
Provides opportunities to explore self-awareness and skill acquisition
and application.
All staff wishing to engage more effectively with victims of sexual
violence and trauma.
Skill acquisition and increased knowledge base.
Application of skills and self-awareness within the therapeutic
relationship.
Safe management of disclosures.
Further develops insight and understanding of working with sexual
violence and trauma.
PW Jones
Appendix 6.
Theoretical Framework. Reducing Victimology.
Reducing Maladaptive Behaviour.

Victim.
Reduction in mal-adaptive behaviour.
(Adapted Child.)
Constructive regime. Engagement issues.
Nature of Regime.
Management Issues.
Treatment Issues.
Relationship.
Staff.
Raising
awareness skills.
Promoting psychological growth.
(Adult.)

Movement towards reduction in mal-adaptive behaviour and more
adult-to-adult relationship.
PW Jones
Appendix 7.
Re-victimisation Equation.
Reduction in victimology
=
Reduction in maladaptive behaviour / symptomology
=
Reduction in mental ill-health and offending behaviour
*
A key aim is to reduce the victimology.
PW Jones
Appendix 8.
Work Programme, Counselling in Prisons Network 2009 - 2010.
Identified Work Programme.
What needs to be done?
How?
Who?
Criteria. Success.
Targeted and Completion Date.
Writing 5 year strategy.
Produce 5 year strategy outlining milestones and future direction for
therapy in the criminal justice system / prisons.
Expert Reference Group.
Publications. (Therapy Today)
Systematic literature review of the research into counselling in
prisons.
Develop formal academic links with academic institutions / departments
to promote research and development projects.
Alan D/
Peter J
Peter J
Counsellors directory.
Peter J
A number of toolkits for counsellors:
*
Self-harm.
*
Pre trial therapy.
*
Expert Reference Group.
Working therapeutically with specialist groups within the criminal
justice system:
*
Learning disability.
*
Armed forces personnel.
*
Older people.
*
YOI
*
Female.
Expert Reference Group.
Produce an ethical framework for Practice for therapists in the
criminal justice system.
Develop standards and criteria for services in the management,
engagement and treatment of Offenders and other in the CJS
Expert Reference Group.
Appendix 9.
The Work Programme Expert Reference Group, 5-Year Strategy.
Identified Work Programme.
What needs to be done?
How?
Who?
Criteria for Success.
Targeted and Completion Date.
Regime / Environment.
Identify factors that discourage disclosure and hinder engagement with
victims.
Reference GP,
Research. Whole System approach
Expert
Reference
Group
Reference GP,
Research. Whole System approach
Staff.
Induction / Training / Support / Supervision.
Develop induction.
Identify training needs and nature of support that staff require in
order to engage and manage victims.
Research. Whole system approach.
CD.ROM Video,
Reference GP. Locally driven
Expert
Reference
Group
Research. Whole system approach.
CD.ROM Video,
Reference GP. Locally driven
Prisoner focused interventions.
Elicit views of prisoners in relation to environment and experience of
relationships in the prisons.
Video , induction , counselling network
Expert
Reference
Group
Video , induction , counselling network
Integrated care pathway.
Develop integrated care pathway.
Identify routes.
Identify responsibilities and interventions within the context of a
whole systems approach both inside and outside the prison.
Identify protocols, if required.
Referral Pathway, whole systems approach, strategy document,
Process Map
Expert
Reference
Group
Referral Pathway, whole systems approach, strategy document,
Process Map
Engagement / relationships.
Identify engagement issues. Look at key worker, roles,
responsibilities and support of staff and support of victims.
Workbook. Integrated
Care pathway.
T.F.C
Counselling Network
P.O training
Expert
Reference
Group
Workbook. Integrated
Care pathway.
T.F.C
Counselling Network
P.O training
Assessment tools / Single holistic assessment.
Develop a single assessment tool that is holistic and sensitive to the
needs of victims.
Expert
Reference
Group
Treatment issues / Interventions.
Identify treatment issues and interventions for victims that is
evidence-based and sensitive to the needs of the victim.
Three stage model, CD Rom, Handbook
Expert
Reference
Group
Three-stage model, CD Rom, Handbook
Documentation.
Develop documentation required in the form of a passport (asset form).
Leaflet
Expert
Reference
Group
Leaflet
Other agency issues.
Identify role and responsibilities of other agencies in the
engagement, management and treatment of victims of abuse.
Reference group
Expert
Reference
Group
Reference group
Support networks.
Identify appropriate support networks and develop for the victim, and
detail these within information leaflets.
BACP
Personal officer, Prison Counselling/CMHT
Community services
Expert
Reference
Group
Personal officer , Prison Counselling/CMHT
Community services
Standards.
Develop standards and criteria for services in the management,
engagement and treatment of victims of abuse.
Expert
Reference
Group
Appendix 10.
Strategic Framework: The Chair Model.

Ethical Practice

*
Training and Development
*
Ethical Practice
*
Best Practice
*
Relationship
*
Regime
*
Evidence Base
PW Jones
Peter Jones.
RMN. MA. 2006.
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