chapter 3 ========= hunger and eating overview: over the years, motivation theorists have come to the view that examining the relat

Chapter 3
=========
Hunger and Eating
Overview: Over the years, motivation theorists have come to the view
that examining the relationship as well as the distinction between
biological hunger and how much is eaten provides greater insight into
the motivational basis of various ‘eating disorders’ such as the
tendency to overeat and become obese. A primary purpose of this
chapter is to try to shed light on both the relationship and
distinction between biological hunger and eating. As an adaptive
mechanism, biological hunger arouses eating behavior for three basic
reasons: (1) to maintain/restore energy supplies; (2) to
provide/manufacture/restore the bio-chemicals necessary for the
maintenance of life, growth, and daily functioning; and (3) to remove
toxins that may pose a threat to survival. Thus, how much and what is
eaten is related to biological hunger. However, eating behavior is
aroused for reasons that transcend the biological need for food;
attempts to satisfy certain psychological and social needs have a
strong influence on eating behavior. Using the ‘component approach’,
four basic issues or questions are addressed in this chapter: (1) How
do humans avoid selecting foods that may contain toxins, and if they
mistakenly select such foods, how do they eliminate the toxins from
their systems? (2) How do humans select foods that satisfy the three
adaptive purposes of biological hunger (described above)? (3) Why do
people have a tendency to become obese and find it difficult to lose
the extra pounds? (4) What is the social significance of food?
Outline:
How Do Humans Avoid Toxins?
The Biological Component
The Learned Component
The Cognitive Component
Food Selection:
Food and Energy: Fats, Carbohydrates, and Proteins
Food and Nutrients: Humans Evolved as Meat Eaters
The Biological Component: The Role of Taste in Food Selection
The Learned Component
The Cognitive Component
Summary
Distinguishing Between Hunger and Eating:
Eating as a Sensory Experience
The Question of Overweight and Obesity:
The Biological Component:
The Genetic Factor Energy Expenditure
Obesity and Anorexia as Malfunctions of the Hypothalamus:
Lesions of the ventromedial nuclei
Lesions of the lateral hypothalamus
Set-Point Theory Positive-Incentive Theory
The Learned Component The Cognitive Component
Summary
Theories of Overweight and Obesity:
Internal-External Theory of Hunger and Eating:
Stomach Activity and Hunger
The Air France Study
Aspects of Externality: Is externality innate or learned?
Externality and nonobese individuals
Sensory cues, externality, and the insulin response
Field studies of the insulin theory
Boundary Theory of Hunger:
Eating and Obesity
Restrained and Unrestrained Eaters
The Preloading Studies
The Disinhibited Eater
Summary
Difficulties Confronting Dieters:
The Biological Component:
Anabolism (Caloric Thrift) and Catabolism (Caloric Waste):
The Learned Component:
The Cultural Ideal
Behavior Modification and Weight Control
The Cognitive Component:
Health Implications of Weight Loss and Obesity:
Summary
Food Sharing and Eating as a Social Event:
The Biological Component
The Learned Component
The Cognitive Component
Summary
Main Points:
1. Humans are born with a number of mechanisms to guard against
ingesting toxins.
2. We can also learn to avoid toxins because we are designed to
associate tastes and
sickness.
3. A balanced diet should consist of protein (10-20%), carbohydrates
(50-60%), and
fats (10-20%).
4. Humans prefer foods that taste sweet, fatty, and salty.
5. Evidence suggests that one reason we eat is for the sensory
qualities that food
provides.
6. Obesity is defined as weight about 25% or more in excess of normal.
7. About two-thirds of our energy expenditure is caused by the basal
metabolic rate
and one-third by exercise.
8. Set-point theory suggests that the hypothalamus sets our weight.
9. According to internal-external theory, one reason that people
become overweight
is that their food intake is controlled by external cues.
10. Boundary theory proposes that two separate mechanisms control our
eating, one
for hunger and one for satiety.
11. Dieters tend to be restrained eaters who set a cognitive boundary.
12. Metabolism tends to slow down during deprivation (anabolism) and
increase after
weight gain (catabolism).
13. Self-monitoring is an effective way to reduce food intake.
14. Excess weight has been linked to health problems such as diabetes,
hypertension, and
cardiovascular disease.
15. Researchers have suggested that food sharing is not only an
important adaptation but
was made possible by the development of a large brain.
Concepts, Terms, and Theories:
Amino Acids Omnivores
Anabolism Positive-Incentive Theory
Anorexia Positive-Incentive Value
Basal Metabolic Rate Potlatches
Behavior Modification Pregnancy Sickness
Biological Preparedness Preloading
Blood-Glucose Level Proteins
Boundary Theory Restrained Eaters
Caloric Thrift Satiety Boundary
Caloric Waste Set-Point Theory
Carbohydrates Settling-Point Theory
Carnivores Specific Dynamic Actioin (SDA)
Catabolism Synthetic Toxins
Cognitive Boundary Taste Aversion
Cultural Conditioning Unrestrained Eaters
Disinhibited Eater Ventromedial Nuclei (VMN)
External Cues
Fats
Fatty Acid Oxidation
Fructose
Glucose
Herbivores
Hunger Boundary
Hyperglycemia
Hyperinsulinemia
Hypoglycemia
Innate Taste Preferences
Insulin Response
Insulin Theory
Internal Cues
Internal-External Theory
Lateral Hypothalamus
Learned Taste Preferences
Leptin
Leptin Gene
Leptin Receptor
Natural Toxins
Classroom Activities/ Demonstrations/ Discussions:
1. From an evolutionary perspective, discuss the prejudice that obese
individuals
experience in North America. It has been argued from this perspective
that
‘plumpness’ can vary in its attractiveness depending upon the times.
Does
the ‘attractiveness’ (and thereby, the attitude toward) obesity vary
depending upon
food availability (plentiful or scarce) within a culture? Is obesity a
sign of good health
in lean times but bad health in abundant times? Can food availability
within cultures
explain cross-cultural differences in attitudes toward obese people?
2. Discuss how ‘chronic hyperinsulinemia’ and the tendency to overeat
might result from
a ‘bidirectional influence of biology and the environment’ ( e.g.,
overeating due to the
availability of a variety of tasty foods  hyperinsulinemia 
hypoglycemia
+ reduced sensitivity of leptin receptors for satiation  more
overeating + weight
gain  more hyperinsulinemia  further hypoglycemia and so forth 
brain
adapting to ‘overeating as normal’ and a state of chronic
hyperinsulinemia).
3. If all behavior is an attempt to adapt, have the class discuss how
evolutionary
psychology might explain other eating disorders such as bulimia.
4. Have the class discuss whether ‘fasting’ or the ‘offering of food
as a sacrifice’
can be explained by concepts and theories discussed in this chapter.
Weblinks:
1. A brief article for student supplemental reading is available at
http://www.thedoctorwillseeyounow.com/articles/behavior/eatdis_8/.
‘A Body To Die For – The ABCs Of Eating Disorders’ by Kathryn J.
Zerbe.
2. For more discussion of food selection, food groups, nutrition, and
calories try
http://www.coolnurse.com/nutrition.htm .
3. For a discussion of eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia
try
http://www.coolnurse.com/eat_disorder.htm. For an abstract and links
to abstracts
and full text articles on the same topic, see The Journal of the
American College
of Nutrition at http://jacn.org/cgi/content/abstract/14/3/271.
4. For a discussion from the evolutionary perspective of the question
of
‘Are Humans Natural Omnivores/Faunivores’ by T. Billings try
http://www.Beyondveg.com/billings-t/comp-anat/comp-ant-1a.shtml.
5. For a wide variety of articles/readings on food selection and
avoidance try
http://www.psych.utoronto.ca/~pgsa/FoodSelection.html .
6. For instructor or student access to free abstracts and links to
full text articles try
the National Library of Medicine website PubMed. It is an excellent
site for access to
current articles related to the topics of this chapter and the
remaining chapters
(http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.org). Search by authors,
journals,
or topic at this site.
Questions:
1. From a purely biological perspective, humans eat to (p. 57)
A. have a source of energy.
B. ingest elements important for rebuilding cells and generating
various
chemical agents.
C. ingest foods/chemicals that can help to remove toxins.
* D. Humans eat for all of these reasons.
Factual
W2. Which of the following is not thought to be one of the mechanisms
that evolved
to help humans guard against natural toxins? (p. 57)
A. avoiding foods on the basis of smell
B. avoiding foods on the basis of taste
* C. avoiding foods on the basis of visual appearance
D. rejecting food by gagging
Factual
3. The ‘first line of defense’ against eating foods that contain
natural toxins
is (p. 57)
* A. smell and taste.
B. taste and spitting.
C. spitting and gagging.
D. gagging and vomiting.
Factual
4. The ‘first line of defense’ against eating foods that contain
natural toxins
is (p. 57-59)
A. the biological disposition to quickly learn to avoid foods that
make us sick.
* B. the biological disposition to select food on the basis of certain
sensory
qualities.
C. the biological tendency to ‘sample’ as opposed to eating large
amounts of
unfamiliar foods.
D. the biological tendency to avoid eating foods that make us gag.
Conceptual
5. The results from studies on pregnancy and nausea suggest that (p.
58)
A. the lower the pregnancy sickness, the lower the likelihood of birth
defects.
* B. the lower the pregnancy sickness, the higher the likelihood of
birth defects.
C. compared to both low and high levels of pregnancy sickness,
moderate levels
of pregnancy sickness are associated with the highest likelihood of
birth defects.
D. there is no relationship between the amount of pregnancy sickness
and the
likelihood of birth defects.
Conceptual
W6. The results from studies on pregnancy and nausea suggest that (p.
58)
* A. a negative relationship exists between the amount of pregnancy
sickness
and the likelihood of birth defects.
B. a positive relationship exists between the amount of pregnancy
sickness
and the likelihood of birth defects.
C. a curvilinear relationship exists between the amount of pregnancy
sickness
and the likelihood of birth defects.
D. no relationship exists between the amount of pregnancy sickness
and the likelihood of birth defects.
Conceptual
7. Which of the following statements is true? (p. 58)
A. Humans are inclined to avoid all new or novel foods.
* B. Humans are inclined to avoid all new or novel foods but will
sample them
from time to time.
C. Humans are inclined to initially find new or novel foods as
pleasant tasting.
D. Humans are inclined to initially gag when they eat new or novel
foods.
Factual
8. Based upon the irradiation studies of Garcia, which of the
following is least
likely to facilitate learning to avoid eating foods that contain
toxins? (p. 58)
A. becoming sick an hour after eating the food
B. becoming sick six hours after eating the food
C. the food eaten had a distinctive taste
* D. the food eaten had a distinctive visual appearance
Factual
9. Which of the following is an implication of the results of Garcia’s
studies on
learning to avoid eating things that make us sick? (p. 58)
A. We are biologically prepared to associate stimuli only if they
occur close
together in time and/or space.
B. We are not biologically prepared to associate stimuli that are
distant from
one another in time and/or space.
* C. We are biologically prepared to make certain stimulus
associations but not
others.
D. Biological preparedness plays little or no role in learning.
Conceptual
10. From an evolutionary perspective, what is the main advantage of
allowing
learning/conditioning to play a key role in helping humans to avoid
toxins?
(p. 58)
* A. It allows humans access to a relatively unrestricted food supply.
B. It doesn't clutter the brain with a large number of prewired
circuits.
C. It allows humans to make decisions based on scientific information.
D. None of these is correct.
Factual
11. With respect to food selection, the term cultural conditioning
refers to (p. 59)
A. food/taste preferences that we each learned through trial and
error.
B. food/taste preferences that we acquire through conditioning.
* C. food/taste preferences that we acquire through imitation.
D. food/taste preferences that we are actively taught by the elders in
our
culture.
Factual
W12. The reason humans are inclined to cook foods today can be
explained by (p. 59)
A. superstitious behavior.
* B. cultural conditioning.
C. reward learning.
D. superstitious behavior and cultural conditioning.
Factual
13. Cultural conditioning has it roots in (p. 59)
A. trial and error learning.
B. reward learning.
* C. imitation.
D. cognition.
Factual
14. It has been shown that humans have been equipped through evolution
to (p. 59)
A. avoid all toxins that exist in our environment today.
B. avoid all synthetic toxins.
C. avoid only toxins that exist in concentrations that can kill us.
* D. avoid only certain naturally occurring toxins.
Factual
15. One of the main problems with many synthetic toxins in our food
today is (p. 59)
A. they often exist in small amounts that do not trigger our natural
defenses.
B. they can build up in our body.
C. they may not have an aversive taste.
* D. all of these.
Factual
16. Carbohydrates are broken down into (p. 60)
A. glucose.
B. fructose
C. galactose.
* D. all of these.
Factual
17. Glucose can be (p. 60)
A. oxidized and used as energy.
B. converted to glycerol to be stored in the liver and muscles.
C. converted into amino acids and stored as fat.
* D. oxidized and used as energy, and converted to glycerol to be
stored in the
liver and muscles.
Factual
W18. With respect to glucose, (p. 60)
A. some remains in the blood for use as energy.
B. most is stored in cell walls as glycogen.
C. excess amounts are converted by the liver to fat.
* D. all of these are true.
Factual
19. "Hitting the wall" corresponds to (p. 60)
* A. shifting from glycerol metabolism to fat metabolism.
B. shifting from fat metabolism to glycerol metabolism.
C. shifting from glucose metabolism to fat metabolism.
D. shifting from glycerol metabolism to glucose metabolism.
Factual
20. Which of the following statements is not true? (p. 60)
A. Fats are broken down into fatty acids.
B. Fatty acids that are not used for energy are stored under the skin
for later
energy needs.
C. Fatty acids can be converted into energy through a process called
fatty acid
oxidation.
* D. Fat is readily converted to glucose for energy.
Factual
21. Which of the following has the most important implications for
people with
weight problems and their ability to lose weight by increasing their
level
of physical activity? (p. 60-61)
A. Glucose can readily converted to to glycerol.
B. Amino acids can readily be converted into glucose.
C. Fatty acid oxidation is not as efficient as converting glycerol to
glucose.
* D. Fat is not readily converted into glucose.
Conceptual
W22. Gram for gram, (p. 60)
* A. fats contain twice as many calories as carbohydrates.
B. carbohydrates contain twice as many calories as fats.
C. fats contain four times as many calories as carbohydrates.
D. carbohydrates contain four times as many calories as fats.
Factual
23. Amino acids (p. 61)
A. are immediately absorbed into the blood stream and used as energy.
* B. go directly to the liver.
C. go to the kidneys first.
D. are immediately converted to fat.
Factual
24. Amino acids are important for (p. 61)
A. growth.
B. repair.
C. energy.
* D. all of these.
Factual
25. Which of the following most closely approximates a balanced diet
for
humans? (p. 61-62)
* A. 15% protein, 55% carbohydrates, and 15% fats
B. 5% protein, 65% carbohydrates, and 30% fats
C. 35% protein, 55% carbohydrates, and 10% fats
D. 35% protein, 35% carbohydrates, and 30% fats
Factual
26. There is considerable evidence to argue that humans are designed
to eat meat
because (p. 62)
A. humans cannot produce Vitamins A and B12.
B. all the essential nutrients humans need cannot be found in a
vegetarian diet.
C. human energy needs require we eat meat.
* D. humans cannot produce Vitamins A and B12, and not all of the
other
essential nutrients humans need can be found in a vegetarian diet.
Factual
27. Which of the following taste preferences is/are thought to be
inherited? (p. 63)
A. sour
B. fatty
C. sweet
* D. fatty and sweet
Factual
28. Which of the following statements concerning the relationship
between innate
human taste preferences and food selection is correct? (p. 63)
A. Although innate taste preferences suggest that humans may have a
biological
disposition to avoid eating junk foods, they are influenced to eat
junk foods
primarily through the power of advertising.
B. Innate taste preferences do not suggest that humans may have a
biological
disposition to select a balanced diet because there are only two
innate taste
preferences.
* C. Innate taste preferences suggest that humans may have a
biological
disposition to select a balanced diet because carbohydrates are sweet
and
fatty tasting meat contains both fat and protein.
D. Innate taste preferences suggest that humans may have a biological
disposition to select a vegetarian diet.
Conceptual
29. The fact that the presence of carbohydrates in the diet are
important for the
digestion of meats provides evidence that humans (p. 63)
A. can readily substitute one food for another.
* B. need a balanced diet.
C. are omnivores.
D. are designed to be vegetarians.
Conceptual
30. Psychologists distinguish between hunger and eating because (p.
65)
A. it is eating, not hunger, that leads to being overweight.
B. hunger is what causes eating.
C. we eat for reasons other than being hungry.
* D. it is eating, not hunger, that leads to being overweight, and we
eat for reasons
other than being hungry.
Factual
31. The fact that people eat more (regardless of their initial level
of hunger)
when the taste (sweet, fatty) of food has been enhanced is thought to
suggest (p. 65)
A. that the biological state of satiety is dependent upon the taste of
food.
B. that the intensity of biological hunger is more influenced by the
taste
of food than by the need for energy and nutrients.
* C. that people often eat for the positive-incentive value of food.
D. that the biological state of satiety is dependent upon the taste of
food, and
that the intensity of biological hunger is more influenced by the
taste of
food than by the need for energy and nutrients.
Conceptual
W32. Which of the following is an illustration of ‘eating for the
positive-incentive
value of food’? (p. 65)
* A. eating nutrition deficient junk food because it taste good
B. eating carbohydrates to get the needed glucose to restore energy
supplies
C. eating meat to get the protein to produce amino acids
D. all of these are illustrations of ‘eating for the
positive-incentive value
of food
Conceptual
33. Jane eats alone. When she prepares her own pot of nutritious
chili, she eats
a normal-sized meal. However, when her mother prepares her nutritious
chili
and sends a pot to Jane, Jane finds it to be delicious compared to her
own and
consumes an over-sized meal. The difference in the sizes of the meals
consumed
by Jane can best be described as an illustration of (p. 65)
A. set-point theory in action.
B. settling-point theory in action.
* C. positive-incentive theory in action.
D. the effect of hyperinsulinemia on eating behavior.
Application
34. It is generally accepted that obesity corresponds to (p. 66)
A. 15% overweight.
* B. 25% overweight.
C. 35% overweight.
D. weight greater than 200 pounds.
Factual
35. One of the main culprits in obesity is (p. 66-67)
* A. hyperinsulinemia.
B. hyperglycemia.
C. hypophagia.
D. aphagia.
Factual
36. Ignoring the specific dynamic action (SDA), what percentage of our
expenditure
is caused by physical activity? (p. 67)
A. 20%
* B. 33%
C. 50%
D. 67%
Factual
W37. Ignoring specific dynamic action (SDA), what percentage of our
expenditure is
caused by the basal metabolic rate? (p. 67)
A. 20%
B. 33%
C. 50%
* D. 67%
Factual
38. One reason people may gain weight as they age is (p. 67)
A. the sensory quality of food becomes less important with age.
B. they tend to sleep longer as they get older.
* C. the basal metabolism and growth rate slows but the amount of
exercise doesn’t increase and the amount eaten doesn’t decrease.
D. all of these are reasons people gain weight as they age.
Conceptual
39. Lesions in the ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus result in
(p. 68)
A. almost complete cessation of eating (anorexia).
B. a reduction in the tendency to ingest sweet-flavored foods.
* C. overeating.
D. no change in eating patterns.
Factual
W40. Lesions in the lateral hypothalamus cause (p. 68)
* A. almost complete cessation of eating (anorexia).
B. a reduction in the tendency to ingest sweet-flavored foods.
C. overeating.
D. no change in eating patterns.
Factual
41. According to set-point theory, overweight people were born with
(p. 68)
* A. a high set point.
B. a normal set point.
C. a low set point.
D. none of these.
Factual
42. According to the famine hypothesis (p. 69)
A. obesity is the result of overeating.
B. the human tendency toward obesity evolved in an environment where
food
was abundant.
* C. the human tendency toward obesity evolved in an environment where
the
food supply was unreliable.
D. none of these.
Factual
43. A child's weight (p. 70)
A. is not correlated with mother's or father's weight.
B. tends to be more highly correlated with father's weight.
* C. tends to be more highly correlated with mother's weight.
D. is equally correlated with mother's and father's weight.
Factual
44. In the study of obese and nonobese individuals in the fast and
slow time study, it
was found that obese individuals (p. 71-72)
* A. tended to eat more under the fast time condition (when the clock
said it was
near their normal dinner time but in real time it was before their
dinner time).
B. tended to eat more under the slow time condition (when the clock
said it was
still some time before their normal dinner time).
C. tended to eat more under both the fast time and slow time
conditions.
D. tended to eat less under the fast time condition.
Factual
W45. In a field study of obese (external) and nonobese (internal)
individuals who flew
with Air France, it was found that (p. 72)
A. obese individuals tended to eat more as a result of time changes.
B. obese individuals found the time changes increased the salience
(influence)
of external cues.
* C. obese individuals had less difficulty adjusting to the time
changes.
D. obese individuals had more difficulty adjusting to the time
changes.
Factual
46. Judith Rodin has shown that (p. 73)
A. the insulin response is only triggered when food is introduced into
the
stomach.
B. the insulin response is only triggered when glucose levels become
excessively high.
C. insulin can be triggered in some people called internals, simply by
stimulating their senses (sight, smell) with food.
* D. insulin can be triggered in some people called externals, simply
by
stimulating their senses (sight, smell) with food.
Factual
47. A key difference between Rodin’s view of external and internal
people and
that of Schachter’s is that (p. 72-73)
A. unlike Schachter, Rodin believes that externals are obese while
internals
are not obese.
* B. unlike Schachter, Rodin does not believe that weight is an
indicator of
whether a person is likely to be an internal or an external.
C. unlike Schachter, Rodin believes that the eating behavior of people
who
are obese and that of people who are not obese is primarily guided by
external cues.
D. unlike Schachter, Rodin believes that the eating behavior of people
who
are obese and that of people who are not obese is primarily guided by
internal cues.
Conceptual
48. It has been shown that people who eat _______tend to eat less at
some
subsequent time. (p. 73)
* A. fructose
B. glucose
C. carbohydrates
D. none of these
Factual
49. According to boundary theory, unrestrained (normal) eaters stop
eating when
they reach an upper boundary. This upper boundary is conceptualized
to be (p. 73-74)
A. a cognitive boundary.
* B. a biological boundary that is referred to as the satiety
boundary.
C. a biological boundary that is referred to as the hunger boundary.
D. a learned boundary that is referred to as the purge boundary.
Factual
50. According to boundary theory restrained eaters maintain their
weight
by (p. 73-74)
A. increasing their sensitivity to satiety cues.
B. decreasing their sensitivity to hunger cues.
* C. setting a cognitive boundary.
D. none of these.
Factual
51. In the preloading studies where subjects had to judge the quality
of ice cream
after preloading, restrained eaters as compared to nonrestrained
eaters (p. 75)
* A. tended to eat more after preloading.
B. ate about the same after preloading.
C. tended to eat less after preloading
D. experienced less feelings of guilt.
Factual
52. The fact that being told that the preload was high in caloric
content
exaggerated the behavior of the restrained eaters after preloading
provides support for the idea that (p. 75)
A. their lower boundary is under physiological control.
B. their upper boundary is under physiological control.
* C. how much they usually eat was under cognitive control.
D. how much they usually eat was under physiological control.
Conceptual
W53. In the preloading studies where subjects had to judge the quality
of ice cream
after preloading, nonrestrained eaters as compared to restrained
eaters (p. 75)
A. tended to eat more after preloading.
B. ate about the same after preloading.
* C. tended to eat less after preloading.
D. experienced less feelings of guilt.
Factual
54. The concept of a ‘disinhibited eater’ plays an important
explanatory role in
(p. 75)
A. set-point theory.
B. internal-external theory.
C. settling-point theory.
* D. boundary theory.
Conceptual
55. Researchers have found that when depression is induced, subjects
‘low-in
self-restraint’ tend to ______ subjects who are ‘high in
self-restraint’. (p. 70)
A. eat significantly more than
* B. eat significantly less than
C. eat the same amount as
D. prefer to eat sweeter food than
Factual
56. "Caloric thrift", or decreased metabolism, is referred to as (p.
76)
A. catabolism.
* B. anabolism.
C. hyperinsulinemia.
D. hypoinsulinemia.
Factual
57. "Caloric waste" or increased metabolism is referred to as (p. 76)
* A. catabolism.
B. anabolism.
C. hyperinsulinemia.
D. hypoinsulinemia.
Factual
58. Hyperinsulinemia (p. 66)
* A. accelerates the conversion of sugar into fat.
B. reduces the conversion of sugar into fat storage.
C. reduces metabolism.
D. accelerates the conversion of sugar into fat and reduces
metabolism.
Factual
59. When people become overweight they (p. 76-77)
A. are inclined to develop a hyperinsulin response.
B. tend to develop a preference for more palatable foods.
C. tend to have a lower metabolic rate.
* D. all of these.
Conceptual
60. According to behavior modification, overweight individuals (p. 77)
A. need to become restrained eaters.
* B. need to acquire new eating habits.
C. can learn to control their weight by developing positive
self-regard.
D. must learn to visualize themselves as thin.
Factual
61. People who are more self-determined (autonomous) (p. 78)
A. attend a weight course more regularly.
B. lose more weight during the course of the program.
C. maintain the weight loss longer.
* D. all of these.
Factual
62. It has been found that (p. 78-79)
A. there can be significant health benefits from large weight loss.
B. there can be significant health benefits from modest weight loss.
C. there are few, if any, health benefits from weight loss.
* D. there can be significant health benefits from large and modest
weight loss
Factual
63. It has been suggested that sharing of food initially emerged when
our human
ancestors (p. 80)
A. became hunters.
B. became gatherers.
* C. specialized as either hunters or gatherers.
D. experienced food shortages.
Factual
56

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